Descent with Modification: EVEN answers
2) the fossil record.
4) Earth is 6,000 years old, and populations are unchanging.
6) Lamarckism. .
8) Charles Lyell
10) Alfred Wallace
12) more recently they shared a common ancestor.
14) individuals must adapt to their environment.
16) Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the gene pool, than poorly adapted individuals.
18) One must observe more than one generation of the population. The population must contain genetic variation.
20) More small-beaked birds dying than the larger-beaked birds. The offspring produced in subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds with large beaks.
22) genetic variation among individuals -- sexual reproduction
24) The amount of available food may have increased. The number of predators may have decreased. The squirrels of subsequent generations should show greater levels of variation than previous generations because squirrels that would not have survived in the past will now survive.
26) A number of genetically resistant pesticide survivors reproduce. The next generation of insects contains more genes from the survivors than it does from susceptible individuals.
28) 1, 3, and 6
30) arm of a human
32) by identifying the bones as being homologous by proposing that humans, bats, and dolphins share a common ancestor
34) baleen whales are descendants of toothed whales.
36) All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.
38) DNA sequence evidence fully disagreed with morphological evidence.
40) The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that code for these proteins are almost identical.
42) island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors.
44) an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time.
46) Earth is old.
50) Small changes accumulated over vast spans of time can produce dramatic results.
52) Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy.
54) observations of molecular homologies
56) A few drug-resistant viruses were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency.
58) Evolutionary adaptation results from interactions between organisms and their environments.