7e Review 1 Ch 2 & 3

1) Which four elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?

2) Each element is unique and different from other elements because of its

3) The mass number of an element can be easily approximated by adding together the number of _________ in an atom of that element.

4) What is the approximate atomic mass of an atom with 16 neutrons, 15 protons and 15 electrons?

5) Calcium has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic mass of 40. Therefore, a calcium atom must have

6) An atom with an atomic number of 9 and a mass number of 19 would have an atomic mass of approximately

7) Different atomic forms of an element containing the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are referred to as?

8) How do isotopes of the same element differ from each other?

9) One difference between carbon-12 and carbon-14 ((C) is that carbon-14 has

 

10) 3H is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. One difference between hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-3 is that hydrogen-3 has

12) Electrons exist only at fixed levels of potential energy. However, if an atom absorbs sufficient energy, a possible result is that

13) The atomic number of neon is 10. Therefore, an atom of neon

14) The reactive properties or chemical behavior of an atom depend on the number of

15) Atoms whose outer electron shells contain eight electrons tend to

16) How many electrons would be expected in the outermost electron shell of an atom with atomic number 12?

17) Fluorine has an atomic number of 9 and a mass number of 19. How many electrons are needed to complete the valence shell of a fluorine atom?

18) A covalent chemical bond is one in which

19) What do atoms form when they share electron pairs?

20) What is the maximum number of covalent bonds an element with atomic number 16 can make with hydrogen?

21) A molecule of carbon dioxide (CO2) is formed when one atom of carbon (atomic number 6) is covalently bonded with two atoms of oxygen (atomic number 8). What is the total number of electrons that must be shared between the carbon atom and the oxygen atoms in order to complete the outer electron shell of all three atoms?

22) Nitrogen (N) is much more electronegative than hydrogen (H). Which of the following statements is correct about the atoms in ammonia (NH3)?

23) When two atoms are equally electronegative, they will interact to form

24) What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms.

25) A covalent bond is likely to be polar when

26) Which of the following molecules contains a polar covalent bond?

27) The ionic bond of sodium chloride is formed when

28) What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?

29) What type of bond does NH4 + form with Cl - to make ammonium chloride salt (NH4Cl)?

30) What results from a transfer of electron(s) between atoms?

31) What explains most specifically the attraction of water molecules to one another.

32) Van der Waals interactions result when

33) What is a van der Walls interaction?

 

Chapter 3: Water and the Fitness of the Environment

34) In a single molecule of water, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by

35) The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?

36) What determines the cohesiveness of water molecules?

37) What do cohesion, surface tension, and adhesion have in common with reference to water?

38) Which of the following is possible due to the high surface tension of water?

39) Which of the following is a correct definition of a kilocalorie?

40) Water's high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the

41) Which bonds must be broken for water to vaporize?

42) Desert rabbits are adapted to the warm climate because their large ears aid in the removal of heat due to the

43) The formation of ice during colder weather helps moderate the seasonal transition to winter. This is mainly because

44) Temperature usually increases when water condenses. Which behavior of water is most directly responsible for this phenomenon?

45) At what temperature is water at its densest?

46) Ice is lighter and floats in water because it is a crystalline structure in which each water molecule is bonded to a maximum of four other water molecules by which kind of bond?

47) Why does ice float in liquid water?

48) Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are

49) The molecular mass of glucose (C6H12O6) is 180 g. To make a 0.5 M solution of glucose, you should do which of the following?

 

Figure 3.2

50) How many grams of the molecule in Figure 3.2 would be equal to 1 mol of the molecule?

(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)

51) How many grams of the molecule in Figure 3.2 would be required to make 1 L of a 0.5 M solution of the molecule?(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)

52) How many grams of the molecule in Figure 3.2 would be required to make 2.5 L of a 1 M solution of the molecule?(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)

53) A solution contains 0.0000001(10-7) moles of hydroxide ions [OH-] per liter. Which of the following best describes this solution?

54) What would be the pH of a solution with a hydroxide ion [OH-] concentration of 10-12 M?

55) What would be the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion [H+] concentration of 10-8 M?

56) Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions [H+]?

57) Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions [OH-]?

58) If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the

59) If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the

60) One liter of a solution of pH 2 has how many more hydrogen ions (H+) than 1 L of a solution of pH 6?

61) One liter of a solution pH 9 has how many more hydroxide ions (OH-) than 1 L of a solution of pH 4?

62) One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid is a weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+). Thus,

H2CO3 HCO3- + H+

If the pH of the blood drops, one would expect

63) Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity is accounted for by its

64) What property of water is responsible for water transport in plants?

65) When does a hydronium ion form?

66) In a neutral solution the concentration of

67) Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which behavior of water is most directly responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature?

69) The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are

70) Which of the following is an example of a hydrophobic material?

71) How many grams of acetic acid (C2H4O2)would you use to make 10 L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid? (Note: The atomic masses, in daltons, are approximately 12 for carbon, 1 for hydrogen, and 16 for oxygen.)